Women in yoga position 2000 x 1333
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Let me state from the outset: Personally, I am not a touchy-feely New-Age kind of guy. Even worse, I have the terrible tendency to insist on evidence, of the good kind, backed by solid empirical data, not the kind based on testimonials that have so thoroughly polluted the web. So when I read about laughter yoga, I didn’t know if I should have been laughing or cringing.

Vishwa Prakash, a laughter therapist and coach, who runs a laughter yoga group that meets at 40th Street and Broadway in New York City says,

There are some simple rules. Let’s be as joyful as we can. Let’s look at each other directly in the eye. And, if you don’t know what’s happening, fake it ’til you make it.

Although the group does not use traditional asanas, laughter yoga practitioners liken it to mainstream yoga in the mental and spiritual sense.

40th and Broadway? Ah, I think, midtown Manhattan, the theater district. Would such BS fly in Iowa, Ohio, or even in the neighboring Bronx? I bet not. Not that I have anything against laughter—I love to laugh—and I am well aware of its great therapeutic effect on body and soul. Having said that, I can’t imagine an authentic Indian Yogi having such a frivolous attitude to his craft.

Knowing something about physiology also leaves me cold about Hot Yoga, another Western fad. You sweat, your heart pounds (are you getting dehydrated?), and you feel like you are doing High-Intensity Training (HIT in fitness parlance). You are not! Your feeling of well-being is more akin to the exaltation you feel when the wind is blowing in your hair, driving a convertible at high speed. You sweat out a lot of water and some salt, no toxins there. And, if you have a heart problem, “talk to your cardiologist” as they say in the commercials.

What follows are some well-documented benefits of regular old yoga:

 

Bre-e-eathe!

So what is Yoga good for? It’s good for a lot. Let’s start with the breathing. Breathing slowly and deeply has many proven physiological effects. First, a short detour.

The brain is bathed in a liquid known as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It circulates about four times a day and disposes of brain tissue metabolites. To investigate how CSF flow is regulated in humans, investigators applied a novel real-time magnetic resonance imaging technique in healthy human subjects. They found something very interesting.

Significant CSF flow occurred exclusively with inspiration, in particular during forced deep breathing. High CSF flow was elicited during every inspiration, whereas breath holding suppressed it. Only a minor component of flow could be ascribed to cardiac pulsation. These results unambiguously identified inspiration as the most important driving force for CSF flow in humans. Conclusion: Breathing deeply helps the brain get rid of waste products.

The breathing centers (there are 4 of them, each with its own function) are located in the brainstem, the most ancient part of the brain. But don’t confuse ancient with primitive. This part of the brain receives signals from the blood, reporting on its pH. If it’s too low, it means the CO2 concentration is too high. That signals that it is time to blow it off by accelerating the respiratory rate. And vice versa, low CO2 normally results from hyperventilation; time to slow it down.

The respiratory centers get signals from other brain regions as well. When we are anxious, a wave of noradrenaline and adrenaline reaches the respiratory centers, signaling a need to increase respiratory rate so that more oxygen reaches the muscles active in the fight-or-flight response. All these responses are so-called involuntary; they occur automatically.

The respiratory centers can also be under voluntary influences. For instance, doing yoga calls for slower and deeper breathing. Several studies documented the influence of such a voluntary pattern on the brain: It causes the appearance of theta waves, which are characteristic of deep relaxation and sleep states. How can this happen? Because the brain connections to the brainstem are not one-way. The brainstem can exert its own influence on brain regions that control our sense of well-being, and even our cognitive functions. So deep, slow breathing can affect the reward system (ah, dopamine!) and un-clutter the areas that participate in rational thinking and decision making.

 

Flexibility—the key to graceful aging?

Stiffness is almost a hallmark of aging. The gait, the involuntary grunt getting in and out of a car, the feeling of stiff and achy joints getting out of bed in the morning—they all bespeak the same thing: Age.

So, why do we get so stiff with time? There are many theories, none completely satisfactory. Here is what I think is the most common explanation for joint stiffness that makes anatomical sense.

The most common joints affected by the affliction of stiffness are the knees, back (the vertebrae), and the feet. The cause is the erosion of the cartilage pads that prevent the grinding of bone-on-bone. Alas, with age, these pads erode and thin. Furthermore, the membrane that surrounds the joint, called the synovium, secretes less and less of the lubricating fluid (synovial fluid) that makes the bone ending glide over the cartilage. So when we sleep or sit for a long time, the synovial fluid pools rather than staying evenly distributed over the cartilage. It takes about 10-15 minutes of moving to achieve an even distribution of the fluid, and that’s when the stiffness melts away.

There is an additional cause of stiffness. As we age, the tendons and the ligaments that anchor the muscles to the bones are getting shorter and stiffer in a biochemical process called cross-linking of collagen.

The Yoga asanas that make us move our joints and stretch those aging tendons and ligaments counteract all the processes that cause stiffness. It’s that simple.

Personally, I can’t start my day without a series of Yoga stretches. That’s how I manage my own disc problems and stiffness related to aging.

 

Flexibility is destiny

Flexibility is not just “cosmetic”, affecting the grace with which we move. It plays a crucial role in natural selection. A wonderful paper published in Nature looked at lions preying on zebras and cheetahs preying on impala. To see natural selection in all its dramatic force, you have to go to the Savannah in Africa, and Botswana’s Etosha National Park is one of the least affected by humans. The animals there are free to roam for miles essentially without impediment. If you are lucky, you can witness the hunt.

To study this act of natural selection in action, you can’t rely on observation and luck. You’ve got to collect data on hundreds of hunts and thousands of data points. The authors, Alan M. Wilson of Structure & Motion Lab, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, and his colleagues, accomplished something of a breakthrough in the field.

They temporarily immobilized animals and fitted them with lightweight collars containing technically sophisticated, custom-designed, miniature electronic and Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The devices monitored the animals’ location, movement, direction, and acceleration patterns.

Wilson et al. tracked 9 lions, 5 cheetahs, 7 zebras, and 7 impala, and recorded 2,726 high-speed runs for lions, 520 for cheetahs, 1,801 for zebras, and 515 for impala. After collar placement, a tiny biopsy of hindlimb muscle was taken from the animals for subsequent state-of-the-art laboratory testing of single-muscle-fiber contractility. What this remarkable data-set showed was astonishing.

Wilson and colleagues’ acceleration and GPS recordings indicated that, during hunts, the predators and prey regularly achieved their maximal turning performance but ran at speeds well below their athletic capabilities. Running at speeds slower than maximum capacity during a pursuit enhances maneuverability, which improves the prey’s probability of successful escape. It also enables predators to better track their prey’s movements, thereby increasing the number of successful hunts. In other words, flexibility trumps big muscles that allow greater speed. In fact, the animals, both predator and prey, utilize less power (speed) to optimize maneuverability, which in turn depends on the animal’s flexibility.

I remember watching a large herd of impalas grazing in Botswana totally unperturbed by the leopard strutting at the edge of the meadow. How can they be so nonchalant with their mortal enemy so close, I remember wondering. Now we know: They are a lot more flexible.

Our own flexibility will probably never save us from a cheetah or a lion. But, one thing’s for sure, it will make our lives much more enjoyable. And that is worth a lot.

Dov Michaeli, MD, PhD
Dov Michaeli, MD, PhD loves to write about the brain and human behavior as well as translate complicated basic science concepts into entertainment for the rest of us. He was a professor at the University of California San Francisco before leaving to enter the world of biotech. He served as the Chief Medical Officer of biotech companies, including Aphton Corporation. He also founded and served as the CEO of Madah Medica, an early stage biotech company developing products to improve post-surgical pain control. He is now retired and enjoys working out, following the stock market, travelling the world, and, of course, writing for TDWI.

5 COMMENTS

  1. Thanks a lot bud…,

    You’ve clearly pointed out important things which I really appreciate it…
    I’m also sharing this article to my every colleagues and friends…
    Again, a big thumbs up for your great work….
    I have question : How long can we do yoga?

  2. One of the simple and common ways of getting fit in your daily life. Thanks for sharing your thoughts on yoga. Hope to see more.

  3. As yoga is a major part for health benefit and give us very enthusiastic energy and diseases free health.Thank you for sharing such a wide topic it really worth reading.

  4. Thank you for the article on yoga. Having been a practitioner for over forty years I have some personal observations on your article. My observations not only come from intellectual research but from 40 years of practical experience healing my own body.
    Breath control is certainly a key component of a yoga practice. It’s interaction with the autonomic nervous system is the key to relaxation. Deep controlled breathing activates the parasympathetic nervous system that helps us rest and relax. Relaxation is a key component to healing. Refer to the book “Deep Healing” by Emmett Miller for a complete explanation of this principle.
    A healthy posture is also a component of a healthy yoga practice. What do I mean by a healthy posture. The human body must align itself along the axis of gravity or stress and physiological deterioration are the result. The axis of gravity is a straight line through a mass to the center of the earth. To be in alignment when standing upright, the head should center over the shoulders, the torso should center over the pelvis and the whole body should center over the arches of the feet. See the book “The Thinking Body” by Mabel Todd for a full explanation of these engineering principles. When the body is out of alignment pain is the result. Yoga remolds the body so we are brought into vertical alignment quite naturally. This eliminates pain. It’s called health care.
    As we age strength is a very important part of health care. Our confidence ebbs as we get weak. Yoga can make you very strong. Try holding plank pose for 5 minutes or hold a hand stand for 3 minutes and you can learn all about strength in yoga. You gain flexibility from strength not weakness.
    Your article completely ignored the mind-body connection. Your thoughts affect your body. You can watch this interaction when you become the observer of your thoughts. As you practice yoga you learn to control your thoughts and control your body. This is TRUE health care.

    • Jim, thank you for your comment. We are in agreement as to Yoga’s benefit of controlled breathing. Ditto, its benefit for flexibility. Although Yoga has some strength benefits, the most effective way to gain strength is through strength training, such as weight-lifting, pushups, pull-ups, etc. Yoga also has only limited benefit for cardiac function. A much more effective type of exercise is aerobic, as in running, swimming, cycling, etc. The mind-body axis is uncontroversial, but the mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. As an example, we already touched in the article on the the control of the respiratory system through blood pH (determined by CO2 concentration). But from this point on things get complicated, poorly understood, and fascinating. The respiratory centers have connections to centers that control heart rate and blood pressure. They also connect to the thalamus, which is a way station in the brain. Through it the respiratory centers can exert influence on mood, reward, even decision making in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex. The nuts and bolts of these influences are still poorly understood. As the standard disclaimer at the end of scientific papers say: more studies are needed.

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