How many doctors do you see on a regular basis? Many of us probably go to the doctor for an annual physical. We also see specialists regularly as well. But what about an eye doctor? When was the last time you had an eye exam?
If you haven’t seen an eye care professional in the few years, perhaps you should put it on your “to do” list. Not only is a comprehensive eye exam essential to catch eye problems early, but it is also a good way to get a glimpse of your overall health. An eye doctor can look into your eyes and see the signs of chronic diseases. It’s not just about making sure you can see. It’s how you see and how you want to keep seeing.
How often should you have an eye exam?
Acknowledging that your eyes truly are a window to your overall health, adults should get a thorough eye exam every 1-2 years. During a routine exam, eye care professionals don’t just check to see if glasses or contact lenses are needed. They also check for eye diseases.
And, they are often the first ones to spot a number of other chronic diseases, including
- high blood pressure,
- high cholesterol,
- autoimmune disease
- some types of thyroid disease
- and even certain cancers.
A regular eye exam is especially important if you’re considered at risk for eye and vision problems.
At-risk people are usually those with diabetes and high blood pressure, or who have a family history of eye disease like glaucoma or macular degeneration. But you might be surprised to know that “at-risk” also includes contact lens wearers and people whose jobs are highly demanding visually. If you stare at a computer screen all day, you may also be considered at risk so you’ll want to be sure to get a thorough eye exam every year.
How do you know if you have an eye issue?
So how do you know if you’re experiencing an eye issue? You may not. Many eye diseases have no symptoms until the disease process is well advanced. Typically, vision issues manifest with blurred vision while driving or reading.
You may also find yourself squinting at the television, feeling visual fatigue by the end of the day, or getting frequent headaches. If it’s been more than 1-2 years since your last visit to your eye doctor, it’s possible your prescription may be out of date.
Are online eye exams good enough?
You may come across websites or smartphone apps that offer online eye exams. These services are definitely tempting. You can get your eyes checked from the comfort of your home instead of making an appointment with your eye care professional. However, you shouldn’t rely on an online test to give you a complete picture of your eye health. Here’s why:
- An online exam can only show what vision correction you may need. In fact, the American Optometric Association has warned against online exams specifically because they aren’t thorough enough. For example, your phone or computer can’t do an eye pressure test to check for glaucoma, which means key indicators of potential health problems could be missed.
A comprehensive eye exam should include several different tests—many of which, today, have to be done face-to-face with the proper equipment.
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What type of tests are included in comprehensive eye exams?
In addition to the routine eye pressure test, a comprehensive eye exam should include several different tests—many of which must be done face-to-face with the appropriate equipment. These include a slit lamp exam, which uses a unique microscope to review the structures of your eye. It often also includes pupil dilation, which can help detect conditions like retinal detachment, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and glaucoma.
During your comprehensive exam, your doctor will also review your medical history to identify any risk factors for eye disease. He or she will then determine the appropriate tests for you. For instance, glaucoma, a group of eye diseases where damage to the optic nerve can cause blindness, is hereditary. So if you have a family member with glaucoma, chances are good your doctor will test you for it as well. If fact, many eye doctors include this test in all routine eye examinations.
Patients living with diabetes may develop retinopathy, a complication of diabetes that is a result of leakage from blood vessels. It can cause blindness. Diabetics may also be at higher risk of developing cataracts, a gradual clouding of the eye’s lens.
Older individuals may be at risk of experiencing AMD, an eye disease that causes damage to the macula, which is a tiny spot near the center of the eye that is responsible for seeing objects straight ahead.
During your exam, your eye doctor may test you for one or more of the following:
- vision sharpness
- eye movement
- depth perception
- a peripheral vision test
All of these tests are helpful in diagnosing potential vision issues and determining the best method to address them. Based on your results, your doctor might also suggest additional testing.
What should I know about children’s eye exams?
While you’re making your eye exam appointment, don’t forget about your kids. The American Academy of Ophthalmology and the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus recommend that children receive at least 3 eye exams by age 6:
- As a newborn
- Between 6 and 12 months of age
- About 3-3/12 years old
These exams can be done by an ophthalmologist or by other doctors with proper training.
Children’s eyes should also be screened for visual acuity at the time they enter school. because problems with visions can affect learning. After that, they should be examined every 1 to 2 years, depending on whether they need vision correction.
What are reasons for having a comprehensive eye exam in childhood?
Triggers for a comprehensive eye exam include the following:
- Failing or unable to perform a vision screening.
- A school nurse or a pediatrician or family physician refers the child
- The child has certain medical conditions that have a high risk for eye problems, such as
- Down syndrome,
- juvenile idiopathic arthritis,
- A family history of certain hereditary eye conditions, such as
- congenital cataracts
- congenital glaucoma
- The child has a learning disability, developmental delay, neuropsychological condition, or behavioral issue.
- Avoiding or disliking reading
- Short attention span
- Difficulty throwing or catching a ball, copying from a chalkboard, or tying their shoes
- Pulling a book in close to their face or sitting too close to a TV
- Lots of blinking or eye rubbing
Another reason to ensure your kids get regular eye exams is that nearly 80% of a child’s learning happens visually. Too often, a child who can’t see well is misdiagnosed with a totally unrelated behavioral problem like ADHD when they may only need a pair of glasses.
What should I tell my eye doctor during an eye exam?
Just like any other doctor’s appointment, an eye exam should include a robust dialogue with your doctor. It should include any current or past visual symptoms. There should be full transparency about the amount of time you spend staring at screens and tablets. It should also include a discussion of whether you follow guidelines for the proper use and cleaning of contact lenses and whether or not you sleep with your contact lenses in.
Sharing your lifestyle and habits with your eye doctor will allow him or her to provide guidance on optimal eye health for you. Some questions you may want to ask your eye doctor include:
- Does my vision seem stable?
- Are prescription sunglasses a good option for me?
- How do I address tired eyes?
- What kind of eye drops do you recommend, if any?
If it’s been a while since you or your kids had an eye exam, don’t put it off any longer. Make an appointment with an eye care professional today to help ensure good vision for life.
Related content: Do You Know the 3 Main Causes of Blindness in the U.S.?
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This article was first published on 8/26/2016. It was reviewed and updated on 5/24/20 for republication.
Howard Purcell, OD, FAAO
Dr. Howard Purcell, O.D., F.A.A.O. in his role at Essilor of America, works very closely with Essilor’s network of optometrists and optometry schools, training doctors to take on and prepare for the future of the vision care industry. He has extensive experience working alongside his father as a second-generation optometrist in Florida for ten years and served as a clinical investigator and consultant to the contact lens industry. Dr. Purcell is a Diplomate in the Cornea and Contact Lens Section of the American Academy of Optometry and a Distinguished Practitioner in the National Academies of Practice.
Dr. Purcell is known for his energetic and enthusiastic style, making him a popular lecturer internationally. He has traveled to six continents and to most of the schools and colleges of optometry in North America. He attended all of the major eyecare meetings in North America presenting and discussing issues of interest to practitioners and students, primarily around those preparing for The Practice of the Future. He has spoken with national media outlets like Anderson Live hosted by Anderson Cooper, FoxNews.com and Wake up with Al to focus consumer attention on topics like UV and blue light protection.