Flower arrangement funeral (900 x 617)
Photo: Mogens Engelund

Bob and Lorraine were my landlords, in their 60s, and lived across the nearly two-lane road in the house they built over Adobe Canyon Creek in Sonoma County, California.

I was Bob and Lorraine’s doctor—not in the come-to-my-office sense, but in the I’m-the-only-medical-person-in-the-family sense. Bob developed a Dupuytren’s contracture, which is where a finger, or fingers, is drawn down toward the palm. The connective tissue thickens and shortens, so moving the affected finger(s) is difficult. The treatment is surgery and I recommended one of the top plastic surgeons in town. Another friend did Bob’s anesthesia, blocking the nerves leading to the hand, much as dentists block nerves in your mouth, with Bob awake during the operation. I assisted with the case and we all—patient, surgeon, assistant, and anesthesiologist—chattered together during the case, sharing jokes and laughing.

Bob’s hand healed well and he would often hold it up, showing the scar and proudly saying, “Maggi is my doctor.”



Lorraine and I were particularly close and she listened to me in good times and bad. She saw me through each of my parent’s deaths, medical residency, my first years of medical practice, moving to Denver, and a devastating break-up. We kept in touch through telephone calls and writing. I looked forward to each handwritten letter. Lorraine had been a looker in her younger years and Bob had swept her off her feet as a handsome and cosmopolitan young man from an old New Orleans family.

Each time I visited the Bay Area from Denver, I added extra time to drive over the Golden Gate Bridge to visit them. By the time I turned the car around in the circular driveway, Lorraine and Bob had stepped off the porch to greet me. Sonoma County always felt like home.

We hugged, walked up the three stairs to the threshold, and sat in the living room. After a brief catch up, Bob drove Lorraine and me to the local family-owned restaurant.



Bob’s eyesight began failing from macular degeneration, a common cause of age-related blindness where the macula, or central retina, degenerates and, therefore, cannot capture images to send to the brain to interpret. Twice, he nearly had a car accident as he turned onto the main highway. Lorraine was getting increasingly forgetful and was anxious about becoming senile. Their only child and his wife, Glyn and Jane, coaxed them to move into transitional housing to be near them, about 120 miles away. Bob and Lorraine had lived in their house for decades and left the area and their friends reluctantly and with many tears.

I continued my tradition whenever possible, visiting Bob and Lorraine and staying with their son and his family. Jane told me Lorraine could scarcely contain herself when she knew I was coming to visit. She was happy from the time I called to let her know I was coming until long after I departed. I have often thought since then of the power in spending time with people—in just showing up.

Our roles began reversing. Lorraine and Bob had always looked after me from afar and now I was looking after them, adding however little I could to Glyn and Jane’s excellent caregiving.

Lorraine’s “forgetfulness” was early dementia. She steadily declined from independent living in their transitional housing facility through daily assistance to needing more care than the facility could provide. She had to move to long-term care while Bob’s macular degeneration progressed to where he could no longer read.

The closest facility for Lorraine was two hours and three bus routes from the apartment she had shared with Bob. Bob, virtually blind, visited her once or twice every day. Lorraine often did not recognize him, yet he stayed, talking with her and holding her hand.


The hospitalization

Bob became ill with a chest infection and was treated as an outpatient. After treatment, he was admitted to the hospital in a confused state.

I see spiders,” he said to Glyn as he picked at the air from his hospital bed.

Glyn told Bob’s doctors he had been a perfectly coherent, a spry 88-year-old before his hospital admission. The doctors seemed indifferent.

As often happens with old people, after his acute hospitalization, Bob was transferred to a nursing home. When he arrived, the staff immediately returned him to the hospital, saying he was too sick to be in a nursing home and suggested further evaluation and treatment.

I flew from Denver to California to be with Bob and his family and see what I could do to sort out Bob’s medical care. He died before I got to his bedside.

On the surface, this might seem to be just another death of an elderly man. Often when elderly spouses are separated, one will die. As I sat with the family the day after Bob died, with his granddaughter Ann, in her final year of medical school, she and I reconstructed the details of Bob’s final days.

Bob’s physicians had started him on antibiotics a few weeks before his death. As we listened to the course of his illness and the timing of events, Ann and I began asking questions.

Tell me again how he was acting,” I asked.

Bob was seeing people who weren’t there and talking nonsense,” Glyn said.

I recalled the spiders. These hallucinations sounded like liver failure, usually caused by chronic alcohol use, but also caused by certain medications with a similar effect on the liver, especially in the elderly. Bob wasn’t a drinker.

Was he yellow?,” I asked.

Yes, at the end.”

Another sign of liver failure.

Do you remember what antibiotics he was taking?,” I asked.


Was he getting regular blood tests while on the antibiotics?

I don’t know. He had blood drawn when he was in the hospital.”

Too few facts, but Ann and I looked at each other. I mentioned medication-induced liver failure.

Ann nodded her head and said, “That’s what I’ve been thinking.”


Lack of care or lack of caring?

As near as we could tell from the limited facts, it appeared the antibiotics had damaged Bob’s liver, leading to his confusion, jaundice, and death. In general, medications are processed by the liver or the kidneys before being excreted. Some medications have well-known side effects on the organs. Specific antibiotics are notorious for this, especially in the elderly. The standard of care is to check the liver enzymes in the blood. If the levels are up, it means the liver cells are being damaged. It was not clear to me Bob’s liver enzymes had been regularly checked.

It appeared to me his physicians paid no attention to Glyn and considered Bob to be a confused old man who was grieving over separation from his wife, perhaps even thinking him an old geezer not worth saving.

A couple of days before Bob died, his physicians recognized he was jaundiced—yellow because of liver failure. Bob was confused because of the build-up of ammonia from his liver’s inability to process it. Bob probably died of the side effects of medications toxic to his liver.

Had Bob been cared for by clinicians who remembered to check his liver enzymes, he might have lived through his illness. His medications could have been stopped or altered when the liver enzyme levels were elevated. Had Bob’s care been coordinated among his many physicians, both outside and inside the hospital, I don’t believe he would have died from this event. He would have been alive for his granddaughter’s graduation, with honors, from medical school three months later.

Failing to check liver enzymes in an elderly patient on certain medications is malpractice.  “Old” and “done for” are not synonyms. Primum non nocerum—first, do no harm.

I moved from my fourth-grade dream of being a small town family practice doctor to working on national health policy so I might have a tiny role in fixing the broken healthcare system. Through all my work in clinical care, regulation, health policy, public health, and business, through my journey through nearly every component of the medical industry, it came down to my friend Bob and medical error.


  1. Thanks, Jim and Nancy, for your comments. There are always side effects to just about any medicine. Some antibiotics can be harder on kidneys than others. Seniors and kids tend to be more sensitive to medicines.

  2. As the daughter and only surviving family member caring for an elderly father with dimentia….I found this article invaluable. I am glad to know certain antibiotics are not appropriate for the elderly. I appreciated the heartfelt narrative of this story as well.

  3. In 1994 I got a case of bronchitis. During this stage of my life I was a workaholic and did not shut it down and give myself some time to heal. Instead the illness got worse so I went for the antibiotics. Two weeks after finishing the antibiotics I noticed a constant ringing in my ears. It never went away. Tinnitus has been my friend ever since.Did the antibiotics cause the tinnitus? I don’t know, but a good body of evidence says maybe. Time off would certainly have been better for me than workaholism. Beware of free lunches. They might come with a consequence.

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